Degradable plastic science knowledge seriesSince the advent of biodegradable plastics, doubts about its performance and confusion of concepts have always existed, mainly because at the beginning of its development there were no scientific measurement methods and standards to restrict and define products.
The concepts and relationships of "biodegradable plastics", "bio-based materials" and "compostable materials" are often confused.
Bio-based materials refer to plastics made from raw materials derived from biomass. But not all bio-based materials are biodegradable or compostable, and not all biodegradable plastics are bio-based materials.
Biodegradable plastic refers to the degradation caused by the action of microorganisms present in nature under the conditions of nature such as soil and/or sand, and/or specific conditions such as composting conditions or anaerobic digestion conditions or aqueous culture medium. Plastics that completely degrade into mineralized inorganic salts of carbon dioxide or/and methane, water and its contained elements, and new biomass.
The compostable materials also require that the content of heavy metals, toxicity tests, and residual debris in the resulting compost complies with the relevant standards.
Therefore, the establishment of biodegradation detection methods and standard systems is particularly important. It not only helps the healthy development of the industry, promotes the rapid formation of the market, promotes the rapid growth of the industry, and is more conducive to the products to the international market.
Biodegradation can occur in many environments, including soil, compost, water treatment facilities, marine environment, and even in the human body.